IRP AntarctPlantAdapt

IRP AntarctPlantAdapt

French-New Zealand International Research Project on Environment

IRP AntarctPlantAdapt
2018-2021
Contact:
Dr. Françoise Hennion
francoise.hennion@univ-rennes1.fr

Prof. Peter J. Lockhart
P.J.Lockhart@massey.ac.nz

IRP AntarctPlantAdapt
News

Introduction

The IRP AntarctPlantAdapt (International Research Project Adaptation of Antarctic Plants to Climate Change), managed by Dr. Françoise Hennion (CNRS, UMR ECOBIO, CNRS-Université de Rennes 1) in collaboration with Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University (Prof. Peter Lockhart), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago (Prof. David Bryant) and UMR ESE (CNRS, AgroParis Tech, Université Paris Saclay), will be effective 2018-2021.

Missions and research themes

Ecosystems under cold climates and with few species are among the most vulnerable to rapid climate change. It is crucial that we improve our understanding of the ability of species to meet short-term and to adapt to long-term changes. This understanding is necessary for the implementation of conservation measures not only for species in these systems but well beyond, for plant species in many other affected environments. The sub-Antarctic islands and the alpine regions of New Zealand correspond to ideal terrain for analysis. Their floras are related and their evolution anchors in the long biogeographical history relating to Antarctic influence in the southern hemisphere. In this program, we will seek to evaluate the potential of contemporary species to adapt to current and future climate change by examining current variability and diversity but also deciphering their origins and evolutionary history. The interdisciplinary approach combines cutting-edge analyses using phylogeny, new methods of calculation, transcriptomics, metabolomics, cytogenetics, and analysis of trait variation across abiotic and biotic gradients thanks to four complementary laboratories.

MAIN PROJECTS OF RESEARCH

AntarctPlantAdapt studies the capacity of plant species to respond to environmental change in the short term and to adapt to global warming in the long term. The study deals in particular with the modalities developed by plants to adapt to a changing environment. Field studies are performed in Kerguelen Islands, Terres Australes et Antarctiques françaises, under IPEV programme no. 1116 (PlantEvol). We measure and sample plants and environments across a range of sites and conditions on the island, which provides insights into the species variation capacity. Hypotheses are then deduced that we test by performing experiments both in situ in common gardens and under controlled conditions in phytotrons. In the laboratory, we analyse variation in metabolites and in gene expression across the same environmental gradients. Our project will help in evaluating the full potential of comparative transcriptomics (comparative gene expression studies) as a discovery tool in adaptation studies of natural populations. We expect that our approach, combining variations, will deliver findings in biological features that are key in plant adaptation.

institutions and laboratories involved

France

  • Françoise HENNION (UMR ECOBIO, CNRS-Université de Rennes 1), PI;
  • UMR ESE (CNRS, AgroParis Tech, Université Paris Saclay)

Nouvelle-Zélande

  • Peter J. LOCKHART (IFS, Massey University), co-PI;
  • Prof. David BRYANT (Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago)

IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Lamy

IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Hennion

IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Hennion

Ranunculus sp. endemic from Iles Kerguelen. IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Hennion

Ranunculus sp. endemic from New Zealand. Photo credits: Peter Lockhart

IEA QIWI

IEA QIWI

French-New Zealand International Emerging Action in Geosciences

IEA QIWI
2019-2021

Contacts:
France: Dr. Y. Le Gonidec (CNRS)
Yves.LeGonidec(at)univ-rennes1.fr

New Zealand: Dr G. Lamarche and Dr. Y. Ladroit (NIWA)

IEA QIWI
News

December 2019: QIWI meeting at NIWA (New Zealand, Wellington)

June 2019: QIWI meeting at IFREMER (France, Brest)

Introduction

The IEA QIWI (International Emerging Action “Quantitative Imaging of Water-column Inhomogeneities using backscatter acoustic signal“) is managed by Dr. Yves Le Gonidec (Géosciences Rennes, CNRS – Université de Rennes 1) in collaboration with the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric research (New Zealand, Wellington).

Missions and research themes

Detecting liquid or gaseous features in the ocean is generating considerable interest in the geoscience community because of their potentially high economic values (oil & gas, mining, freshwater), their significance for environmental management (oil/gas leakage, biodiversity mapping, greenhouse gas monitoring) and, in New Zealand, cultural and traditional values. Modern marine multibeam echosounders provide the most reliable, accessible and technologically advanced means to develop systematic, measurable and repeatable means of analysis of such features by using the acoustic energy backscattered by gas, oil bubbles, freshwater plumes, particulate matter, etc. Identifying and characterising flares and plumes from the marine acoustic backscatter signal is a difficult task due to the often very weak contrast of acoustic impedance between scatterers and sea-water, the transient and dynamic behaviour of the scatterers, and the complexity of the physics involved in marine acoustic signal analysis in this dynamic environment. In 2018, the QUOI (Quantitative Ocean-Column Imaging using hydroacoustic sources) oceanographic voyage, leads by the NIWA, was performed in the hydrothermal vent field in the shallow waters of Bay of Plenty (New Zealand) to tackle some of the issues pertinent to this topic.

Main OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The aim of the IEA QIWI is to enhance understanding of the origin, behaviour and quantity of physical features in the water column recorded in marine acoustic systems: the main projects of research deal methodological development and specific processing of multi-sensor and multi-target acoustic datasets acquired during the QUOI voyage. Complementary measurements are also available, including an optical towed-camera (IMAS) over active gas seeps and ground-truth sampling data for direct observation and characterization (natural targets), and a Synthetic Seep Generator (SSG, UNH) used to generate gas bubbles automatically released in the water column (artificial targets). Passive acoustic experiments performed to record ambient acoustic noises are analysed in order to identify acoustic sounds associated to natural gas bubbles released at the seafloor, but this remains challenging because of the noisy environnement. Acoustic experiments deal with the use of different echosounders used during the QUOI voyage. A single-beam transducer, mounted to a Pan and Tilt system (IFREMER) to acquire acoustic profiles with different incident angles, and two multibeam systems with a large acoustic fan aperture were recorded simultaneously, allowing a cross-calibration experiment performed on the SSG deployed in a seafloor area free of natural seeps. A multifrequency approach has been performed with a set of calibrated singlebeam echosounders in the frequency range 18-200 kHz and is used to identify the bubble size and gas viscosity: the quantification of these two frequency dependent parameters can contribute to discriminate between CO2 and CH4 gases, and between small and large bubbles associated to different rising speeds in the water column: the approach may inform to better understand the origin of the seep and the flare morphology from the seafloor to the sea surface.

institutions and laboratories involved

France

  • Géosciences Rennes, CNRS – Université de Rennes 1: Yves Le Gonidec
  • IFREMER, Brest: Jean-Marie Augustin, Arnaud Gaillot, Cyrille Poncelet

New Zealand

  • NIWA, Wellington: Yoann Ladroit, Geoffroy Lamarche (leader of the QUOI voyage), Arne Pallentin, Sally Watson

Australia

  • IMAS/CSIRO, Hobart: Vanessa Lucieer, Amy Nau, Erika Spain

USA

  • UNH, New Hampshire: Tom Weber, Elizabeth Weidner

Perspective view of the Calypso Hydrothermal Vent Field with acoustic flares generated by gas bubbles backscattered acoustic echos (QUOI voyage).

Active gas seep observed by the towed-camera (IMAS): video sample (2 s) of natural gas bubbles released at the seafloor in the hydrothermal vent of the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand (QUOI voyage).

The Synthetic Seep Generator (SSG) developed by the University of New Hampshire (T. Weber) generates artificial bubbles in the water column (QUOI voyage). Credit photo: G. Lamarche

IRP VINADAPT

IRP VINADAPT

French-New Zealander International Research Project in Environment

IRP VINADAPT

2019-2023
Contact:
Dr. Hervé Quénol
herve.quenol(at)univ-rennes2.fr

Pr. Peyman Zawar-Reza
peyman.zawar-reza(at)canterbury.ac.nz

IRP VINADAPT
News

Project LIFE – ADVICLIM :  https://www.adviclim.eu/

Temperature sensor in Waipara vineyard (New Zealand)

INTRODUCTION

The IRP VINADAPT (International Research Project, High-resolution scenarios for adapting agrosystems to climate change: application to viticulture) managed by Dr. Hervé Quénol (CNRS, UMR6554 LETG, University of Rennes 2) in collaboration with the School of Earth and Environment (Prof. Peyman Zawar Reza) of University of Canterbury) will be effective from 2019 to 2023.

MISSIONS AND RESEARCH THEMES

Global climate change affects regional climates and has implications for viticulture worldwide. Various studies have addressed the issue of the impact of climate change on viticulture in many wine-growing regions of the world, but few studies are devoted to the observation and simulation of climate and climate change at the vineyard level (local scale). However, variations in vine growth and differences in grape/wine quality are often observed over short distances in a wine-growing region and are linked to local characteristics (slope, soil…). The high spatial variability of climate caused by local factors is often of the same order or even higher than the temperature increase simulated by the different IPCC scenarios. The winegrowers can adapt to this spatial variability of the climate, notably through their cultivation practices. In the context of climate change, prior knowledge of the spatial variability of climate at fine scales is an asset for defining possibilities for adaptation to the temporal evolution of climate in the medium to longer term. This multidisciplinary and international project aims to produce fine-scale climate change adaptation scenarios by combining simulations of future climate (2031-2050 et 2081-2100) with vine growth models and viticultural practices. These scenarios will be constructed and applied in French and New Zealand wine-growing regions where the current and future impacts of climate change are expected to be rather different. This methodology, based on agroclimatic measurement and modelling and developed specifically in viticulture, aims to be applicable to different agro systems (e. fruticulture).

INSTITUTIONS AND LABORATORIES INVOLVED

France

  • Dr Hervé Quénol (UMR 6554 LETG, CNRS-Université Rennes 2)
  • Dr Benjamin Pohl (UMR 6282 Biogéoscience, CNRS-Université Bourgogne Franche Comté)
  • Dr Nathalie Ollat (UMR 1287 EGFV, INRAE-Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin)
  • Dr Iñaki Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri (US1116 AGROCLIM, INRAE)

New Zealand

  • Dr Peyman Zawar Reza (School of Earth and Environment, College of Science, University of Canterbury)
  • Dr Amber Parker (Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Dr. Amber Parker)
  • Dr Damian Martin (New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, Marlborough Research Centre)
  • Tracy Benge (Bragato Research Institute, Marlborough Research Centre)

Frost and Bird Protection Systems in the vineyards of Marlborough (New Zealand)

Vineyards in the Waipara Valley (New Zealand)

Vineyards of the Marlborough Region (New Zealand)