French-New Zealand International Research Project in Physics


Confining walls-of-Light in nonlinear Kerr resonators

Project coordinator: Julien Fatome, ICB UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne (France)

Co-director: Stephane Coen, The University of Auckland (New-Zealand)



Illustration of a Kerr resonator coherently driven by a single continuous wave laser and generating a frequency comb in output. (Wharariki Beach).

Intensity profile of a cavity soliton recorded in a macro-scale fiber cavity (The University of Auckland)


“Kia ora koutou katoa”

The WALL-IN project (confining walls-of-Light in nonlinear Kerr resonators) is an international research action focused on the study of nonlinear dynamics occurring in optical Kerr resonators. This project is managed by Julien Fatome from the Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB) in Dijon (France) in collaboration with the photonics group of The University of Auckland (New-Zealand).

Research activities

Optical frequency combs (OFCs) are made of thousands of discrete and evenly spaced frequency lines. They can act as “spectral optical rulers” that enable to measure unknown optical frequencies with extraordinarily high precision and for which its inventors were awarded by the Nobel prize in 2005. Frequency comb systems commercially available mainly rely on bulky ultrashort-pulse lasers and supercontinuum technologies. However, a fundamentally different approach was demonstrated in 2007, when continuous laser light was shown to be transformed into an evenly-spaced comb when confined into a nonlinear Kerr microresonator. It is now well understood that such OFC generation in Kerr resonators is mostly based on the emergence of robust, short and bright temporal structures, called dissipative cavity solitons (CSs). First observed in a macroscale optical fiber ring, CSs have attracted growing interest over the past decade and have led to major advances in numerous fields of science such as massively multiplexed optical telecommunications, optical buffering, lidar systems, astrocombs or spectroscopy for molecular fingerprinting. However, CSs are mostly restricted to optical platforms characterized by anomalous chromatic dispersion, which dramatically limits the range of available spectral bands and thus potential applications. Indeed, recalling that numerous materials are characterized by strong normal dispersion, in particular in the mid-infrared where molecules provide strong absorptions, there is a growing interest in the generation of short temporal structures in normally dispersive Kerr resonators so as to extend the applications of OFCs to new spectral regions. So far, several different strategies have been reported such as dark optical solitons, locking of switching waves, platicons or mode coupling in microresonators. However, generation of broad OFCs in normal dispersion regime is still an opened question. In the framework of the Wall-IN project, we combine the complementary expertise of two leading groups of the nonlinear fiber optics community (ICB laboratory in Dijon and The University of Auckland) to extend the applications of OFCs and associated dissipative temporal structures in normal dispersion Kerr resonators around 1.55 µm. Our strategy is based on the investigation of novel vectorial and multimode nonlinear dynamics in fiber-based macro-resonators which are known to be governed by the same equations than microresonators, whist providing much easier and versatile experimental implementation. Subsequently, our findings will be investigated within micro-fiber loops and finally in integrated Kerr microresonators.

A fruitful collaboration

The collaboration between the ICB laboratory and The University of Auckland is focused on the international hot-topic dealing with cavity solitons and optical frequency combs generation in nonlinear Kerr resonators. This collaboration benefits from the complementary and strong expertise of the two groups in nonlinear fiber optics, temporal cavity solitons (UoA) and all-optical polarization control (ICB). In that context, our collaboration has been strongly reinforced by 3 academic stays of J. Fatome at UoA in 2015, 2017 and 2020. This collaborative activity dealing with cavity solitons and optical frequency combs generation has already been awarded by several common scientific contributions.

List of publications

  1. J. Fatome, F. Leo, M. Guasoni, B. Kibler, M. Erkintalo, and S. Coen “Polarization domain-wall cavity solitons in isotropic fiber ring resonators,” in Nonlinear Photonics conference, paper NW3B.6 (2016).
  2. Y. Wang, F. Leo, J. Fatome, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch and S. Coen “Universal mechanism for the binding of temporal cavity solitons,” Optica 4, 855-863 (2017).
  3. J. Fatome, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, B. Kibler, A. Bendahmane, N. Berti, G.-L. Oppo, F. Leo, S. G. Murdoch, M. Erkintalo, and S. Coen “Flip-flop polarization domain walls in a Kerr resonator,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, post-deadline paper JTu6F.2 (2018).
  4. B. Garbin, J. Fatome, Y. Wang, A. Bendahmane, G. L. Oppo, S. G. Murdoch, M. Erkintalo and S. Coen “Symmetry breaking and polarization domain walls in a passive resonator,” in SPIE Photonics West conference, 10517 (2018).
  5. J. Fatome, N. Berti, B. Kibler, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, M. Erkintalo and S. Coen “Temporal Tweezing of Polarization Domain Walls in a Fiber Kerr Resonator,” in CLEO US, paper SW3H.3 (2019).
  6. J. Nuño, C. Finot, G. Xu, G. Millot, M. Erkintalo and J. Fatome “Vectorial dispersive shock waves in optical fibers,” Communications Physics 2, 138 (2019).
  7. S. Coen, B. Garbin, J. Fatome, Y. Wang, F. Leo, G. L. Oppo, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo “Dissipative polarization domain walls as persisting topological defects,” in CLEO Pacific Rim, invited contribution, paper Th4B.1 (2018).
  8. B. Garbin, J. Fatome, G.-L. Oppo, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen “Asymmetric balance in symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. Research 2, 023244 (2020).
  9. J. Fatome, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen “Polarization faticon in normally dispersive Kerr resonators,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, paper NpW2E.8 (2020).
  10. J. Fatome, B. Kibler, F. Leo, A. Bendahmane, G.-L. Oppo, B. Garbin, Y. Wang, S. G. Murdoch, M. Erkintalo, and S. Coen “Polarization modulation instability in a nonlinear fiber Kerr resonator,” Optics Letters 45, 5069-5072 (2020).
  11. B. Garbin, J. Fatome, G.-L. Oppo, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen “Dissipative polarization domain walls in a passive driven Kerr resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 023904 (2021).
  12. G. Xu, A. Nielsen, B. Garbin, J. Fatome, L. Hill, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking of dissipative solitons in a two-component Kerr resonator,” arXiv:2008.13776 (2020).
  13. Y. Xu, A. Sharples, J. Fatome, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo and S. G. Murdoch “Frequency comb generation in a pulse-pumped normal dispersion Kerr mini-resonator,” Optics Letters 46, 512-515 (2021).

Laboratories and members involved


  • Julien Fatome, ICB UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne
  • Bertrand Kibler, ICB UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne
  • Kamal Hammani, ICB UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne
  • Guy Millot, ICB UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne

New Zealand

  • Stephane Coen, The University of Auckland
  • Miro Erkintalo, The University of Auckland
  • Stuart G. Murdoch, The University of Auckland

We are always opened to new collaborations and regularly provide new positions for students and postdocs, don’t hesitate to contact us!

Schematic illustration of optical frequency combs generation in normally dispersive Kerr resonators by harnessing vectorial nonlinear interactions. CW: Continuous Wave.

Picture of the UoA group with French visitors [J. Fatome (ICB), S. Barland (Inphyni) and G. Tissoni (Inphyni)]

IRP AntarctPlantAdapt

IRP AntarctPlantAdapt

French-New Zealand International Research Project on Environment

IRP AntarctPlantAdapt
Dr. Françoise Hennion

Prof. Peter J. Lockhart

Prof Peter J. Lockhart institutional page

IRP AntarctPlantAdapt


The IRP AntarctPlantAdapt (International Research Project Adaptation of Antarctic Plants to Climate Change), managed by Dr. Françoise Hennion (CNRS, UMR ECOBIO, CNRS-Université de Rennes 1) in collaboration with Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University (Prof. Peter Lockhart), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago (Prof. David Bryant) and UMR ESE (CNRS, AgroParis Tech, Université Paris Saclay), will be effective 2018-2021.

Missions and research themes

Ecosystems under cold climates and with few species are among the most vulnerable to rapid climate change. It is crucial that we improve our understanding of the ability of species to meet short-term and to adapt to long-term changes. This understanding is necessary for the implementation of conservation measures not only for species in these systems but well beyond, for plant species in many other affected environments. The sub-Antarctic islands and the alpine regions of New Zealand correspond to ideal terrain for analysis. Their floras are related and their evolution anchors in the long biogeographical history relating to Antarctic influence in the southern hemisphere. In this program, we will seek to evaluate the potential of contemporary species to adapt to current and future climate change by examining current variability and diversity but also deciphering their origins and evolutionary history. The interdisciplinary approach combines cutting-edge analyses using phylogeny, new methods of calculation, transcriptomics, metabolomics, cytogenetics, and analysis of trait variation across abiotic and biotic gradients thanks to four complementary laboratories.


AntarctPlantAdapt studies the capacity of plant species to respond to environmental change in the short term and to adapt to global warming in the long term. The study deals in particular with the modalities developed by plants to adapt to a changing environment. Field studies are performed in Kerguelen Islands, Terres Australes et Antarctiques françaises, under IPEV programme no. 1116 (PlantEvol). We measure and sample plants and environments across a range of sites and conditions on the island, which provides insights into the species variation capacity. Hypotheses are then deduced that we test by performing experiments both in situ in common gardens and under controlled conditions in phytotrons. In the laboratory, we analyse variation in metabolites and in gene expression across the same environmental gradients. Our project will help in evaluating the full potential of comparative transcriptomics (comparative gene expression studies) as a discovery tool in adaptation studies of natural populations. We expect that our approach, combining variations, will deliver findings in biological features that are key in plant adaptation.

institutions and laboratories involved


  • Françoise HENNION (UMR ECOBIO, CNRS-Université de Rennes 1), PI;
  • UMR ESE (CNRS, AgroParis Tech, Université Paris Saclay)


  • Peter J. LOCKHART (IFS, Massey University), co-PI;
  • Prof. David BRYANT (Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago)


Short read Illumina unigene libraries have recently been constructed for Ranunculus moseleyi and close phylogenetic relatives in the New Zealand mountains by Peter Lockhart and colleagues. These libraries provide a resource for investigating cryptic physiologies and also provide molecular markers potentially important in adaptive diversification.

Long read PacBio and short read Illumina sequencing have also been recently completed for a study investigating the plastic gene expression in the Lyallia kerguelensis transcriptome sampled across environmental gradients in the Kerguelen islands (IPEV 1116 PlantEvol programme). The availability of short and long reads will be used to build hybrid long and short read unigene libraries and test the sufficiency of short reads for unigene library construction.

New paper by Lorène Marchand, Françoise Hennion and colleagues indicates that endemic plant Lyallia kerguelensis from Iles Kerguelen presents adaptive morphological variation but it may not be sufficient to cope with the driest environments under climate change. (Polar Biology)

IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Lamy

IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Hennion

Ranunculus crithmifolius at Mt Hutt, South Island, New Zealand (Peter Lockhart)

IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Hennion

Ranunculus sp. endemic from Iles Kerguelen. IPEV PlantEvol@Françoise Hennion

Ranunculus insignis subsp. lobulatus, Lake Tennyson, South Island, New Zealand (Peter Lockhart)



French-New Zealand International Emerging Action in Geosciences


France: Dr. Y. Le Gonidec (CNRS)

New Zealand: Dr G. Lamarche and Dr. Y. Ladroit (NIWA)


December 2019: QIWI meeting at NIWA (New Zealand, Wellington)

June 2019: QIWI meeting at IFREMER (France, Brest)


The IEA QIWI (International Emerging Action “Quantitative Imaging of Water-column Inhomogeneities using backscatter acoustic signal“) is managed by Dr. Yves Le Gonidec (Géosciences Rennes, CNRS – Université de Rennes 1) in collaboration with the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric research (New Zealand, Wellington).

Missions and research themes

Detecting liquid or gaseous features in the ocean is generating considerable interest in the geoscience community because of their potentially high economic values (oil & gas, mining, freshwater), their significance for environmental management (oil/gas leakage, biodiversity mapping, greenhouse gas monitoring) and, in New Zealand, cultural and traditional values. Modern marine multibeam echosounders provide the most reliable, accessible and technologically advanced means to develop systematic, measurable and repeatable means of analysis of such features by using the acoustic energy backscattered by gas, oil bubbles, freshwater plumes, particulate matter, etc. Identifying and characterising flares and plumes from the marine acoustic backscatter signal is a difficult task due to the often very weak contrast of acoustic impedance between scatterers and sea-water, the transient and dynamic behaviour of the scatterers, and the complexity of the physics involved in marine acoustic signal analysis in this dynamic environment. In 2018, the QUOI (Quantitative Ocean-Column Imaging using hydroacoustic sources) oceanographic voyage, leads by the NIWA, was performed in the hydrothermal vent field in the shallow waters of Bay of Plenty (New Zealand) to tackle some of the issues pertinent to this topic.


The aim of the IEA QIWI is to enhance understanding of the origin, behaviour and quantity of physical features in the water column recorded in marine acoustic systems: the main projects of research deal methodological development and specific processing of multi-sensor and multi-target acoustic datasets acquired during the QUOI voyage. Complementary measurements are also available, including an optical towed-camera (IMAS) over active gas seeps and ground-truth sampling data for direct observation and characterization (natural targets), and a Synthetic Seep Generator (SSG, UNH) used to generate gas bubbles automatically released in the water column (artificial targets). Passive acoustic experiments performed to record ambient acoustic noises are analysed in order to identify acoustic sounds associated to natural gas bubbles released at the seafloor, but this remains challenging because of the noisy environnement. Acoustic experiments deal with the use of different echosounders used during the QUOI voyage. A single-beam transducer, mounted to a Pan and Tilt system (IFREMER) to acquire acoustic profiles with different incident angles, and two multibeam systems with a large acoustic fan aperture were recorded simultaneously, allowing a cross-calibration experiment performed on the SSG deployed in a seafloor area free of natural seeps. A multifrequency approach has been performed with a set of calibrated singlebeam echosounders in the frequency range 18-200 kHz and is used to identify the bubble size and gas viscosity: the quantification of these two frequency dependent parameters can contribute to discriminate between CO2 and CH4 gases, and between small and large bubbles associated to different rising speeds in the water column: the approach may inform to better understand the origin of the seep and the flare morphology from the seafloor to the sea surface.

institutions and laboratories involved


  • Géosciences Rennes, CNRS – Université de Rennes 1: Yves Le Gonidec
  • IFREMER, Brest: Jean-Marie Augustin, Arnaud Gaillot, Cyrille Poncelet

New Zealand

  • NIWA, Wellington: Yoann Ladroit, Geoffroy Lamarche (leader of the QUOI voyage), Arne Pallentin, Sally Watson


  • IMAS/CSIRO, Hobart: Vanessa Lucieer, Amy Nau, Erika Spain


  • UNH, New Hampshire: Tom Weber, Elizabeth Weidner

Perspective view of the Calypso Hydrothermal Vent Field with acoustic flares generated by gas bubbles backscattered acoustic echos (QUOI voyage).

Active gas seep observed by the towed-camera (IMAS): video sample (2 s) of natural gas bubbles released at the seafloor in the hydrothermal vent of the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand (QUOI voyage).

The Synthetic Seep Generator (SSG) developed by the University of New Hampshire (T. Weber) generates artificial bubbles in the water column (QUOI voyage). Credit photo: G. Lamarche



French-New Zealander International Research Project in Environment


Dr. Hervé Quénol

Pr. Peyman Zawar-Reza



Temperature sensor in Waipara vineyard (New Zealand)


The IRP VINADAPT (International Research Project, High-resolution scenarios for adapting agrosystems to climate change: application to viticulture) managed by Dr. Hervé Quénol (CNRS, UMR6554 LETG, University of Rennes 2) in collaboration with the School of Earth and Environment (Prof. Peyman Zawar Reza) of University of Canterbury) will be effective from 2019 to 2023.


Global climate change affects regional climates and has implications for viticulture worldwide. Various studies have addressed the issue of the impact of climate change on viticulture in many wine-growing regions of the world, but few studies are devoted to the observation and simulation of climate and climate change at the vineyard level (local scale). However, variations in vine growth and differences in grape/wine quality are often observed over short distances in a wine-growing region and are linked to local characteristics (slope, soil…). The high spatial variability of climate caused by local factors is often of the same order or even higher than the temperature increase simulated by the different IPCC scenarios. The winegrowers can adapt to this spatial variability of the climate, notably through their cultivation practices. In the context of climate change, prior knowledge of the spatial variability of climate at fine scales is an asset for defining possibilities for adaptation to the temporal evolution of climate in the medium to longer term. This multidisciplinary and international project aims to produce fine-scale climate change adaptation scenarios by combining simulations of future climate (2031-2050 et 2081-2100) with vine growth models and viticultural practices. These scenarios will be constructed and applied in French and New Zealand wine-growing regions where the current and future impacts of climate change are expected to be rather different. This methodology, based on agroclimatic measurement and modelling and developed specifically in viticulture, aims to be applicable to different agro systems (e. fruticulture).



  • Dr Hervé Quénol (UMR 6554 LETG, CNRS-Université Rennes 2)
  • Dr Benjamin Pohl (UMR 6282 Biogéoscience, CNRS-Université Bourgogne Franche Comté)
  • Dr Nathalie Ollat (UMR 1287 EGFV, INRAE-Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin)
  • Dr Iñaki Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri (US1116 AGROCLIM, INRAE)

New Zealand

  • Dr Peyman Zawar Reza (School of Earth and Environment, College of Science, University of Canterbury)
  • Dr Amber Parker (Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Dr. Amber Parker)
  • Dr Damian Martin (New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, Marlborough Research Centre)
  • Tracy Benge (Bragato Research Institute, Marlborough Research Centre)

Frost and Bird Protection Systems in the vineyards of Marlborough (New Zealand)

Vineyards in the Waipara Valley (New Zealand)

Vineyards of the Marlborough Region (New Zealand)

Upcoming conferences: