IEA QIWI

IEA QIWI

French-New Zealand International Emerging Action in Geosciences

IEA QIWI
2019-2021

Contacts:
France: Dr. Y. Le Gonidec (CNRS)
Yves.LeGonidec(at)univ-rennes1.fr

New Zealand: Dr G. Lamarche and Dr. Y. Ladroit (NIWA)

IEA QIWI
News

December 2019: QIWI meeting at NIWA (New Zealand, Wellington)

June 2019: QIWI meeting at IFREMER (France, Brest)

Introduction

The IEA QIWI (International Emerging Action “Quantitative Imaging of Water-column Inhomogeneities using backscatter acoustic signal“) is managed by Dr. Yves Le Gonidec (Géosciences Rennes, CNRS – Université de Rennes 1) in collaboration with the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric research (New Zealand, Wellington).

Missions and research themes

Detecting liquid or gaseous features in the ocean is generating considerable interest in the geoscience community because of their potentially high economic values (oil & gas, mining, freshwater), their significance for environmental management (oil/gas leakage, biodiversity mapping, greenhouse gas monitoring) and, in New Zealand, cultural and traditional values. Modern marine multibeam echosounders provide the most reliable, accessible and technologically advanced means to develop systematic, measurable and repeatable means of analysis of such features by using the acoustic energy backscattered by gas, oil bubbles, freshwater plumes, particulate matter, etc. Identifying and characterising flares and plumes from the marine acoustic backscatter signal is a difficult task due to the often very weak contrast of acoustic impedance between scatterers and sea-water, the transient and dynamic behaviour of the scatterers, and the complexity of the physics involved in marine acoustic signal analysis in this dynamic environment. In 2018, the QUOI (Quantitative Ocean-Column Imaging using hydroacoustic sources) oceanographic voyage, leads by the NIWA, was performed in the hydrothermal vent field in the shallow waters of Bay of Plenty (New Zealand) to tackle some of the issues pertinent to this topic.

Main OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The aim of the IEA QIWI is to enhance understanding of the origin, behaviour and quantity of physical features in the water column recorded in marine acoustic systems: the main projects of research deal methodological development and specific processing of multi-sensor and multi-target acoustic datasets acquired during the QUOI voyage. Complementary measurements are also available, including an optical towed-camera (IMAS) over active gas seeps and ground-truth sampling data for direct observation and characterization (natural targets), and a Synthetic Seep Generator (SSG, UNH) used to generate gas bubbles automatically released in the water column (artificial targets). Passive acoustic experiments performed to record ambient acoustic noises are analysed in order to identify acoustic sounds associated to natural gas bubbles released at the seafloor, but this remains challenging because of the noisy environnement. Acoustic experiments deal with the use of different echosounders used during the QUOI voyage. A single-beam transducer, mounted to a Pan and Tilt system (IFREMER) to acquire acoustic profiles with different incident angles, and two multibeam systems with a large acoustic fan aperture were recorded simultaneously, allowing a cross-calibration experiment performed on the SSG deployed in a seafloor area free of natural seeps. A multifrequency approach has been performed with a set of calibrated singlebeam echosounders in the frequency range 18-200 kHz and is used to identify the bubble size and gas viscosity: the quantification of these two frequency dependent parameters can contribute to discriminate between CO2 and CH4 gases, and between small and large bubbles associated to different rising speeds in the water column: the approach may inform to better understand the origin of the seep and the flare morphology from the seafloor to the sea surface.

institutions and laboratories involved

France

  • Géosciences Rennes, CNRS – Université de Rennes 1: Yves Le Gonidec
  • IFREMER, Brest: Jean-Marie Augustin, Arnaud Gaillot, Cyrille Poncelet

New Zealand

  • NIWA, Wellington: Yoann Ladroit, Geoffroy Lamarche (leader of the QUOI voyage), Arne Pallentin, Sally Watson

Australia

  • IMAS/CSIRO, Hobart: Vanessa Lucieer, Amy Nau, Erika Spain

USA

  • UNH, New Hampshire: Tom Weber, Elizabeth Weidner

Perspective view of the Calypso Hydrothermal Vent Field with acoustic flares generated by gas bubbles backscattered acoustic echos (QUOI voyage).

Active gas seep observed by the towed-camera (IMAS): video sample (2 s) of natural gas bubbles released at the seafloor in the hydrothermal vent of the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand (QUOI voyage).

The Synthetic Seep Generator (SSG) developed by the University of New Hampshire (T. Weber) generates artificial bubbles in the water column (QUOI voyage). Credit photo: G. Lamarche

IEA Nanomobility

IEA Nanomobility

French-Australian International Emerging Action on Phosphate Minerals

IEA NanoMobility
2020-2021
Contact:
Dr. Anne-Magali SEYDOUX-GUILLAUME
anne.magali.seydoux(at)univ-st-etienne.fr

Prof. Steve REDDY
s.reddy(at)curtin.edu.au

IEA NanoMobility
News

Introduction

The IEA Nanomobility (Resolving element mobility at the nanoscale in phosphate minerals), managed by Dr. Anne-Magali SEYDOUX-GUILLAUME (CNRS, Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon: Terre, Planète, Environnement, ENS, Université Lyon 1, France) in collaboration with the Geoscience Atom Probe group (Prof. Steve Reddy, Dr. Denis Fougerouse and Dr David Saxey) from the University of Curtin in Perth (Australia), will be effective in 2020 and 2021.

Missions and research themes

Phosphate minerals (monazite and xenotime) are of fundamental importance (i) to date rocks of various contexts, (ii) as a source of rare metals (e.g. REE), and (iii) as potential repositories for nuclear waste. However, particularly in the case of ancient rocks ((> 540 Myr), the multiple events that may affect rocks over geological time can result in extremely complex features within phosphates. Recent studies show such features down to the nanometre scale, indicating that it is essential to investigate these minerals at very high-spatial resolutions to understand the mechanisms responsible for element mobility, and provide reliable geological and geochronological interpretations. This project proposes to bring new constraints on nanoscale processes by combining Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT), and to develop nanogeochronology in monazite and xenotime. This will be possible thanks to the international partnership and the transfer of expertise between France (TEM) and Australia (APT).

Main OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

This project will provide new data on the mechanisms responsible for element mobility at the nanoscale in phosphates. The first objective is to constrain the mechanisms responsible for the disturbance of the chronometric systems: how do these minerals preserve a nanoscale record of processes associated with metamorphism, alteration or deformation? The second objective is to develop the science of nanogeochronology. To achieve these goals, we will implement a new approach in the geoscience field, which combines the nanoscale techniques of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, French expertise) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT, Australian expertise).

institutions and laboratories involved

France
• Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon: Terre, Planète, Environnement, CNRS-ENS-Université Lyon 1, UMR5276, Lyon ; (http://lgltpe.ens-lyon.fr/)
• Laboratoire de géologie de Saint-Etienne, Université Jean Monnet, Saint Etienne, CNRS UMR 6524, Université Clermont-Auvergne, IRD (https://www.univ-st-etienne.fr/fr/lmv-ltl.html,)
• TEM facility from the CLYM, Consortium Lyon Saint-Etienne de Microscopie, FED 4092 (http://www.clym.fr/fr/node/156)

Australia
• Geoscience Atom Probe Facility, Curtin University, Perth,(http://www.geoscienceatomprobe.org/ )

Read more

Fougerouse, D., Reddy, S.M., Saxey, D.W., Erickson, T., Kirkland, C.L., Rickard, W.D.A., Seydoux-Guillaume, A.-M., Clark, C., and Buick, I.S. (2018). Nanoscale distribution of Pb in monazite revealed by atom probe microscopy. Chem. Geol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.01.020

Seydoux-Guillaume A-M., Fougerouse, D., Laurent A.T., Gardes, E., Reddy, S.M., Saxey, D.W. (2019). Nanoscale resetting of the Th/Pb system in an isotopically-closed monazite grain: a combined Atom Probe and Transmission Electron Microscopy study. Geoscience Frontiers, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2018.09.004.

Reddy, S. M., Saxey, D. W., Rickard, W. D. A., Fougerouse, D., Montalvo, S. D., Verberne, R., & Riessen, A. (2020). Atom Probe Tomography: Development and Application to the Geosciences. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research44(1), 5–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggr.12313

Figure. APT 3D-reconstruction (left) and TEM images (STEM-HAADF and S-Ca chemical maps ; right) from the same monazite crystal; note the presence of nanoclusters rich in Ca, S (TEM/APT) et Pb (APT). For APT each « point » corresponds to one atom, and the total volume analyzed to 20 millions of atoms. After Seydoux-Guillaume et al. (2019)

IEA FAACS

IEA FAACS

French-Australian collaboration on Antarctic Climate Science

IEA/PICS FAACS
2018-2020
Contact:
Dr Ghislain Picard
ghislain.picard(at)univ-grenoble-alpes.fr

Dr Petra Heil
petra.heil(at)utas.edu.au

IEA FAACS
News

Introduction

The IEA/PICS FAACS (French-Australian collaboration on Antartic Climate Science) is managed by Dr Ghislain Picard in collaboration with Dr Petra Heil.This collaboration is the follow-up of long-term collaborative research undertaken by two CNRS institutes:  Institut des Geosciences de l’Environnement (IGE, Grenoble)  and CEA-CNRS-UVSQ Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE, Paris) in France, and the Australian Antarctic Division in Australia (Kingston, Tasmania).

The goal is to support existing activities and foster new collaboration in the following domains :
1) the oldest ice challenge which aims at locating old ice in Antarctica with an age of up to 1.5 Millions year;
2) the characterization and prediction of present and future climate with focus on surface mass balance of the glacial Antarctic ice sheet, precipitation origins and snow physics;
3) modelling and validation of sea-ice/snow/ice-shelf/ocean interactions.

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES

The Australian and French Antarctic programs share a large geographical sector of Antarctica, with stations spanning from 62° to 140°E and very important drilling sites (Dome C, Law Dome, Aurora Basin North) on the Antarctic ice sheet. Bilateral cooperation started as early as 1957 during the International Geophysical Year, with the over-wintering of scientists (C Lorius, R Schlich), followed by a series of projects on the geochemistry of heavy metals In the 90s.The deeper South Summit drilling (Morgan et al. 2002 with M Delmotte and J Chappelaz) later provided important timing information on deglaciation events. In recent years, active collaboration with the Antarctic Climate & Environment Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC, equivalent to “Labex” in France. ACE CRC ended 30 June 2019. A new institute took its place on 01 Jul 2019 (funded for 10 years): Australian Antarctic Programme Partnership [AAPP]) took place. Recent joint research projects include the Aurora Basin North (ABN) traverse and ice core drilling in 2013, with major co-investments in logistics and science by both nations. In 2015-2016, G Picard (French P.I. of this proposal) was hosted at ACE CRC to conduct numerical modeling of snow on sea-ice in the Southern Ocean with P Heil (Australian P.I. of this proposal), opening a new theme of collaboration.

The motivation for this IEA/PICs  project is to foster new exchanges, especially involving young scientists and students from both nations by addressing prominent questions in the domain of the Antarctic climate – past, present and future – including the continental and marine cryospheric components, with three overlapping challenges : 1) Oldest Ice, 2) present and future climate and 3) sea ice.

1) Oldest Ice.
The project will contribute to The Oldest Ice project, i.e. an international community effort to search for the oldest ice with preserved chronology in Antarctica in order to establish the longest possible climatology. This task will require the search for an optimal site, the development of high-resolution analytical tools and innovative drilling technologies.

2) Recent and future climate on the Antarctic continent.
The contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to sea-level rise is a major issue. Snow accumulation , ice sheet dynamics and surface mass balance are studied in our institutes through chemical and isotopic analysis of ice core together with radar, remote sensing and continuous meteorological measurements.

3) Sea ice.
The role of changing sea ice on water-mass modification and 3D ocean circulation, as well as interaction between sea ice and ice shelves, remains largely unknown and are the focus here.

RESEARCH PROJECT

Here, we propose research on several aspects of the Antarctic sea-ice system, including vertical sea-ice/snow processes, surface ponds, and impacts of ice-shelf melt on sea ice and vice versa. The implementation of the IEA/PICS include:

  • exchanges of staff for short and long stay between both countries,
  • exchanges of students (PhD, Master),
  • seminar and short visit in Hobart during the rotation of expeditioners to/from Antarctic.
  • an annual meeting by video-conference.
  • shipping of ice samples and instrumentation.

institutions and laboratories involved

France
• Dr Ghislain Picard, CNRS – UMR5001 Institut des Géosciences de l’Environnement
• CEA-CNRS-UVSQ UMR8212 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement

Australia
Dr Petra Heil (Australian Antarctic Division)

Caption

Caption

IRN I² Interstellar Institute

IRN I² Interstellar Institute

French-Australian IRN on sciences of the Universe

IRN Interstellar Institute
2021 – 2025
Contact:
Marc-Antoine Miville-Deschênes
marc-antoine.miville-deschenes(at)cnrs.fr

Joshua Peek
jegpeek(at)stsci.edu

https://interstellarinstitute.org 

IRN I²
Website

IRN I²
News

The self-organised star formation process Sept-Oct 2019 – Institut Pascal, Université Paris-Saclay, France. interstellarinstitute.org/so-star

The Grand Cascade July 2021 – Institut Pascal, Université Paris-Saclay, France. interstellarinstitute.org/cascade

Introduction

The International Research Network Interstellar Institute () is managed on the French side by Marc-Antoine Miville-Deschênes, CNRS research director at the Astrophysics, Instrumentation & Modeling (AIM) Laboratory in Paris-Saclay, and on the American side by Joshua Peek, associate astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.
The 27 core members of this network are located in institutes and universities in Australia, Canada, the United States, France, Germany, Austria and Greece.

MISSION AND SCIENTIFIC SCOPE

The scientific scope of the Interstellar Institute is to study how structure and complexity emerged in the Universe. The interstellar medium is the reservoir of diffuse gas from which every star is formed. Its structure determines how galaxies are formed and evolved over time. To study in details the complex multi-scale and multi-process physics at play in the formation of structures, I² uses numerical simulations and multi-wavelength observations of the interstellar medium of our own Galaxy and nearby galaxies.

The mission of the Interstellar Institute is to produce new scientific breakthroughs and to lead the study of complex physics of diffuse baryonic matter in and around galaxies. The work of the Institute is focused on theoretical and data analysis approaches, rather than on designing instrumentation or conducting dedicated observation programs.

NetWork Activities

The Interstellar Institute runs a yearly 4-week intensive working session combining its core members with a similar number of visiting scientists to foster new ideas and interactions. These sessions happen in Paris, the world’s most active centre for interstellar physics. Interstellar Institute​ members collaborate throughout the year on projects developed at the summer intensive sessions.

institutions and laboratories involved

France
• Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS-Paris-Saclay Université
• Astrophysics, Instrumentation, Modeling laboratory, CNRS-Paris-Saclay Université
• Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et en Planétologie, CNRS-Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier

Australia
• 
Australian National University, Canberra
• Macquarie University, Sydney

USA
• 
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore
• Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University
• Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton University
• University of Wisconsin, Madison
• University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Germany
• Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg

Austria
• University of Vienna

Canada
• Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto
• Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton

Greece
• Foundation for Research and Technology, University of Creete

 

You can read a presentation of IRN I² here